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HPV Virus Medical Information


J Med Assoc Thai. 2004 Dec;87(12):1419-24.

Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Thai women attending the family planning clinic, Siriraj Hospital.

Watcharotone W, Sirimai K, Kiriwat O, Nukoolkarn P, Watcharaprapapong O, Pibulmanee S, Chandanabodhi S, Leckyim NA, Chiravacharadej G. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among Thai women attending a family planning clinic and to evaluate the association of BV with potential risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross sectional prevalence study was conducted among 800 women attending the family planning clinic, Siriraj Hospital, between August and December 2003. BV was diagnosed according to Amsel's criteria. Prevalence and risk factor models were compiled and statistically analyzed RESULTS: Among the low risk population acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, the prevalence of BV was 14.6% (117 of 800). Asymptomatic disease was recognized in up to 47.9% (56 of 117). BV was significantly more prevalent among those who used douching inside the vagina [OR = 3.98 (1.85-8.33), p < 0.01] and high a prevalence among IUD users [OR = 1.84 (1.22-2.79), p < 0.01]. Although not statistically significant, BV tended to be more prevalent among women with a lower age at first intercourse, higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher frequency of sexual intercourse and current smokers. CONCLUSION: BV is a relatively high prevalent condition. The two potential risk factors, douching inside the vagina and IUD use, can be demonstrated, adding to be more concerned about the inappropriate practice of douching and more consideration in IUD users. The other potential risk factors, the impact to adverse reproductive outcomes and the prevention of BV need further studies, particularly in various Thai populations.


Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;23(2):127-30.

Is the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis a reliable predictor of coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female ED patients?

White MJ, Sadalla JK, Springer SR, Counselman FL. Department of Emergency Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, 23507, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine if the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is associated with an increased risk of coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in female patients presenting to the ED with symptoms consistent with a sexually transmitted disease (STD). METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of female patients tested for the presence of TV by wet mount preparation in the ED from January 1998 through January 2001. Only patients that had the complete results of the wet preparation for TV, DNA probe for CT, and culture for NG were included. RESULTS: A total of 690 patients were enrolled in the study. Four hundred twenty (61%) patients tested positive for TV by wet mount preparation and 270 (39%) tested negative. Of the 420 TV-positive patients, 41 (9.8%) tested positive for NG, 35 (8.3%) tested positive for CT, and 16 (3.8%) for both. For the 270 TV-negative patients, 16 (5.9%) tested positive for NG, 91 (33.7%) tested positive for CT, and 16 (5.9%) for both. By chi 2 testing, there was a strong negative association between the presence of TV and coinfection with CT and/or NG. The presence of TV made it 2.9 times less likely to have coinfection with NG and/or CT. CONCLUSION: The presence of TV in female patients presenting to the ED with symptoms consistent with an STD is not associated with an increased risk of coinfection with NG and/or CT.


MedGenMed. 2004 Oct 15;6(4):50.

Prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnant women in Havana City by an immunologic latex agglutination test.

Limia OF, Lantero MI, Betancourt A, de Armas E, Villoch A. Direction of Animal Health and Production, National Center for Animal and Plant Diseases, Carretera de Jamaica y Autopista Nacional, San Jose de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba.

We aimed to estimate the prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis in immunocompetent pregnant women living in Havana City, Cuba, with or without symptoms of vaginitis, using a sample of 640 women from 6 Gyneco-obstetrics hospitals, which represents 2.5% of total yearly pregnant women. Diagnosis was made using a new latex agglutination kit (Newvagin C-Kure, La Habana, Cuba). Clinical sensitivity and specificity of this assay were validated against culture method, with 467 and 489 clinical specimens for Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Results showed that the kit clinical sensitivity was 100% for Candida albicans and 86.7% for Trichomonas vaginalis compared with a clinical specificity of 93.3% for Candida albicans and 95.1% for Trichomonas vaginalis by culture. The prevalence of candidiasis was determined to be 42.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%); the prevalence of trichomoniasis was 9.84% (95% CI 2.3%). In our sample, 48.7% of the women tested negative with respect to both candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Only 6.41% of the cases yielded inconclusive results. The test has high sensitivity, and our results indicate a relatively high prevalence of both infections. However, a significant difference (P < .001) was also observed in candidiasis and trichomoniasis prevalence among hospitals corresponding to the quantity of women with clinical vaginitis. No difference was observed between diabetics and nondiabetics, probably due to the special care of diabetic pregnant women. We conclude that the method is useful for this kind of vaginitis prevalence study and that candidiasis and trichomoniasis prevalences in pregnant women of Havana are 38.5% to 46.2 % (95% CI) and 7.5% to 12.1% (95% CI), respectively.


Ginekol Pol. 2004 Dec;75(12):932-6.

Frequency of vaginal infections in pregnant women in the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology in Zabrze

HPV Virus Medical Information - Article in Polish

Kazmierczak W, Wnek M, Kaminski K. Klinika Perinatologii i Ginekologii w Zabrzu, SlAM, Katowicach.

OBJECTIVES: The analysis of vaginal infections in pregnant women admitted to the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology in Zabrze, from January 2001 to September 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: They were screened for BV, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. 450 pregnant women (the age of pregnancy 25 +/- 9 weeks gestation) were examined for the presence of these microorganisms in the vagina. Diagnosis was based on symptoms, pH measurement and microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The most common vaginal infection was candidiasis--188 (42%), 86 (19 %) women had BV, 17 (4%) Trichomonas vaginalis and 159 (35%) patients had normal vaginal flora.


Infect Immun. 2005 Mar;73(3):1828-35.

Profile of Candida albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase elicited during vaginal infection.

Taylor BN, Staib P, Binder A, Biesemeier A, Sehnal M, Rollinghoff M, Morschhauser J, Schroppel K. Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Friedrich-Alexander Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, Wasserturmstrasse 3/5, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Vaginal infections caused by the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans are a significant problem in women of child-bearing age. Several factors are recognized as playing a crucial role in the pathogenesis of superficial candidiasis; these factors include hyphal formation, phenotypic switching, and the expression of virulence factors, including a 10-member family of secreted aspartic proteinases. In the present investigation, we analyzed the secreted aspartic proteinase gene (SAP) expression profile of C. albicans that is elicited in the course of vaginal infection in mice and how this in vivo expression profile is associated with hyphal formation. We utilized two different genetic reporter systems that allowed us to observe SAP expression on a single-cell basis, a recombination-based in vivo expression technology and green fluorescent protein-expressing Candida reporter strains. Of the six SAP genes that were analyzed (SAP1 to SAP6), only SAP4 and SAP5 were detectably induced during infection in this model. Expression of both of these genes was associated with hyphal growth, although not all hyphal cells detectably expressed SAP4 and SAP5. SAP5 expression was induced soon after infection, whereas SAP4 was expressed at later times and in fewer cells compared with SAP5. These findings point to a link between morphogenetic development and expression of virulence genes during Candida vaginitis in mice, where host signals induce both hyphal formation and expression of SAP4 and SAP5, but temporal gene expression patterns are ultimately controlled by other factors.

HPV Virus Medical Information - HPV and Vaginosis Links

Biological and Hormonal Markers of Chlamydia, HPV, etc. - Read about risk factors for various STDs.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) - A guide for a young woman health.

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The hpv, human papilloma, picture virus impairment in textbooks as a genital wart rather than HPV caused dsyplasia.